One of the most popular variety's of Beryl, Emerald is known for its beautiful deep green colour. The colour is caused by the presence of chromium and sometimes vanadium in its makeup. Emeralds often occur in hydrothermal veins in metamorphic rock. Hydrothermal fluids containing the elements that create Emeralds escape from magma deep within the earths crust. When these fluids begin to cool, they start to form Emeralds. Emeralds can also form in pegmatites and they are often found in aluvial deposits. The largest supplier of gem quality Emeralds is Colombia but there are many fine stones that come out of Brazil, Africa and Australia. Natural Emeralds are rarely found without inclusions. The majority of the stones on the market are oiled to disguise/fill cracks, hide flaws and enhance colour. This is considered an industry standard.
The beautiful green Emerald has been used through history by many cultures since ancient times. Records show that Emeralds have been sold in markets as early as 4000 BC. One of the earliest recorded Emerald finds in human history was in upper Egypt. It is well known that the Emerald was the favorite gemstone of Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt. It was believed that the stone stood for fertility and rebirth. Legend has it that in Ancient Rome, Nero supposedly watched gladiators fight through a large transparent emerald as he found the colour calming. Shah Jahan, on of the moguls of India that build the Taj Mahal, was said to have loved emeralds so much that he had sacred texts inscribed into them and used the gemstones as talismans. According to Indian Mythology, the name Emerald was first translated from Sanskrit as "marakata", meaning "the green of growing things".
It is extremely rare for Emeralds to have no inclusions and generally stones with fewer inclusions are most desirable. Sometimes Emeralds with slight flaws are also sought after due to this proving their authenticity. The deeper the green, the more valuable the stone.
Indian Name: Budha (Sun) or Panna
Color: Green shades to colorless