Known for being the hardest gemstone on earth, Diamond is considered to be one of the most valuable stones on the gemstone market. The brilliant fire, exceptional luster and unmatched durability of Diamond can be associated with its immense popularity. It is also considered to be one of the most romantic gemstones, hence it is traditionally given on proposal of marriage or as a keepsake to a loved one that will last throughout the ages. A carbon based stone, Diamond is formed due to massive amounts of pressure and extremely high temperatures. Diamonds start off deep within the earth's mantle (up to 190 kms!) and surface due to volcanic explosions. The first Diamonds where discovered in the rivers of India and for ages this was considered the only source. Since then Diamond has been discovered in kimberlite rock (volcanic pipes) in South Africa. It has been sourced through mining, which involves processing large quantities of rock. Most Diamonds are colourless but in rare circumstances Diamonds can be found displaying colour. Red Diamond is considered to be one of the rarest and most expensive stones in the world.
Diamond's are a hugely popular stone that has been used throughout the ages. The name "Diamond" is derived from the Greek word "adamas" which means unbreakable. The earliest discovery of Diamonds was in 800 BC where they were found in alluvial deposits. In the 1400's Mary of Burgendy was the first known recipient of a diamond engagement ring, which was given to her by the Archduke Maximilian of Austria. The largest gem quality Diamond (The Cullinan Diamond) was found in 1905 in South Africa.
Diamonds are graded using a system that has been instituted by the Gemological Institute of America called the 4 C's. The 4 C's represent Colour, Cut, Clarity and Carat wight.
Colour is graded using an alphabetical scale, which ranges from D (colourless) to Y (deep yellow or yellow-brown). The letters between D and Y described the colour, depending on the amount of yellow saturation. In the case of fancy diamonds the letter z can be used.
The cut of a Diamond is the shape in which it has been cut into. For instance heart shaped or brilliant.
The clarity of a Diamond is graded by the measurement of flaws and inclusions within the stone.
IF- Internally Flawless (No flaws or inclusions at 10x magnification)
VVS1- Very Very small inclusions (Very very small inclusions can be seen under 10X magnification)
VVS2- Very small inclusions (Tiny flaws or inclusions can be seen under 10x magnification)
VS1- Very small inclusions (Contains small flaws or inclusions that can be seen under 10x magnification)
VS2- Very small inclusions (Contains flaws or inclusions that can be seen under 10x magnification)
SI1- Small Inclusions (Larger flaws or inclusions visible at 10x magnification)
SI2- Small Inclusions (Large flaws or inclusions easily visible at 10x magnification)
I1-Inclusions (Inclusions visible to the naked eye
I2-Inclusions (Large inclusions visible to the naked eye
I3-Inclusions (Very large inclusions visible to the naked eye
Carat weight (ct) is the measurement system that Diamonds are usually weighed at.
Indian Name: Heera
Color: Typically yellow, brown or gray to colorless. Less often blue, green, black, translucent white, pink, violet, orange, purple and red.